I.I. Goriushkin  
  - Principles of mechanisms of alcoholic and narcotic addiction (regulationary-structural aspect)
// In: Горюшкин И.И.  МЕХАНИЗМЫ АЛКОГОЛИЗМА: регуляционно-структурные отношения (патогенез, лечение, диагностика), монография. М.: Спутник+, 2008:12-44.
Горюшкин И.И. - Принципы механизмов алкогольной и наркотической зависимости (регуляционно-структурный аспект) - русский ]

          Key words:    adaptation, addiction, alcoholic, drug dependence, euphoria, inertia, limiting, mechanisms, mental, narcomania, narcomanogenesis, narcotics, regulation, readaptation, social, system, toxicomania, toxicomanogenesis

- The sum and substance: 
           I.I. Goriushkin [  - I ask to excuse me for my translation from Russian on English. Later I plan will return to correct  ]


   1._ The highest nervous system of the person in the presence of narcotic substances appears "switched off", that is why and - not capable to adequate participation in elimination of the metabolic disbalance caused by presence in an organism of narcotics;

   2._ Endogenous functional (or metabolic) insufficiency of an organism can quite serve as that favorable background for which - the use of narcotic substances becomes more preferable;

   3._ Teenagers (namely, what name "difficult"), as well as a "morbid" part of the population of a society, of course, require the help; but not substitutes of type of alcohol, tobacco, narcotics or ideological abstraction, and - in social adaptation (anticipating, preventive and, the main thing, socially oriented), as well as - in possibility of the intellectual development (education, culture);

   4._ The structural-regulationary system which has aggregated in: (ferment, either a receptor, or component of a membrane, etc.) and regulationary components (a gene, system of hormonal synthesis, etc.), and also transport (blood, etc.), it is possible to consider as "elementary addictive unit" organism, i.e. - the most simple model, allowing to explain principles of occurrence and development of narcotic dependence (narcomanogenesis);

   5._ Features of functioning of this, "elementary addictive unit", are that, that in principle can explain molecular mechanisms of occurrence of such clinical phenomena of narcomanogenesis, toxicomanogenesis or drug addiction - as: euphoria, tolerance, an inclination, an abstinent syndrome (addiction) and a polynarcotism;

   6._ The basic biological reason of narcomanias, toxicomanias and drugs addiction (and, was probably, and other addictions, including behavioural) is - feature of processes of regulation existing in biological systems, namely, their inertiaful;

   7._ Dependence (alcoholic, narcotic, or any another) forms, first of all, at that level of the biochemical or neurophysiological organisation of an organism, where its is regulationary-functional relations with substances (or factors), causing dependence, develop most inertially;

   8._ For formation of an inclination to narcotic substance (or addictions) it is important, that the mental projection (euphoria, a condition of comfort and well-being), resulting the use of a narcotic - answered also it, the person, to psychological preferences and personal valuable orientations;

   9._ General inertiaful of interactions of an organism with narcotic substance can develop not obligatoryly of one, but also from several factors making it, of processes;

   10._ Interaction of narcotic substance with inertial component of biological system can remain and "not noted" until then - while this inertial system will not receive the intermediary (or the projection) at level of mentality (at level of behaviour of all organism);

   11._ - Participation of nervous system in formation of "elementary addictive unit", in principle, is important for clinical implications of narcomanogenesis, but not obligatoryly - for formation narcotic or drug addiction, as such;

   12._ Any uninertial system (separate component, sequence of components or more difficult biological organization), basically, shouldn't be capable to formation "in itself" neither toxicomanias, nor drug addiction, - and in an overall picture of narcomanogenesis will play a passive, "buffer" role;

   13._ Only directional influences and, first of all, on regulatory components and processes - towards reduction of their inertiaful - can provide efficiency of a readaptation of biological systems to their existence "without narcotics";

   14._ Search of ways of maintenance of a condition of the reduced inertiaful (during the moments of presence of a narcotic in an organism), - is one of probable paths to achievement as conditions of steady remission, and - "abilities to live with narcotics" without occurrence of dependence on them;

   15._ If, all told above to summarise, it is possible to assert, that - at the heart of mechanisms of formation of addiction (any, including narcotic) four biological phenomena (or the factor) lay all only:
    1) physics-chemical interaction (in our case - "narcotic interaction", i.e. ability of narcotic psychotropic substance to cause the answer at level of metabolic, physiologic or physical processes of an organism);
    2) a functional limited, i.e. - the most important role in formation of addiction - limiting stages of sequence of processes;
    3) a mental capability of project on, i.e. the immediate or mediated participation of narcotic, psychotropic substance in functioning of "emotionally-motivational apparatus" brain; and, at last,
    4) regulatory inertiaful, i.e. slow enough character of processes as adaptations, and readaptatia (bad reversibility);

   16._ As to two other factors: physics-chemical interaction and a mental capability of project on, - that intervention (controlling), in principle, can be organised already and "now", through preventive actions, - for example, strong-willed (the psychotherapy, socially oriented advertising, etc.) or organizational (restriction of access to narcotic substances, toughening of the control, etc.);

   17._ As a whole, for an exception of the possibility of occurrence of a narcomania, toxicomania or other dependences in biological system, basically, there is enough organization of corresponding effective measures in relation to one, any of four numbered requirements (or factors) narcomanogenesis (toxicomanogenesis).

The bases of these statements
can be seen here:
[ I.I. Goriushkin "Molecular mechanisms of drug addictions, toxicomanias (regulationary-structural relations)", 1986
//  Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im SS Korsakova 1986;86(2):258-64. Russian ]

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